Tag Archive | "Miriam David"

Universal Girls’ Education? The Malala Movement


GEA Policy Report – July 2013

Malala Day, July 12, 2013, was a week ago, as it was Malala Yousafrai’s 16th birthday. To celebrate she was invited to speak at the United Nations in New York about her campaigns for universal and free education for all (EFA) and the speech she gave was broadcast to schoolchildren worldwide. She argued that ‘I do not even hate the Talib who shot me. If he stood in front of me, I would not shoot him…The[y] are afraid of books and pens. The power of education frightens them. They are afraid of women. The power of the voice of women frightens them…’

Readers will recall that Malala was the Pakistani schoolgirl who was shot in the face on her way home from school by a Taliban gunman in the Swat valley on October 12th 2012. She was severely injured and flown to England for surgery in Birmingham at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital. She has made a miraculous recovery and is now attending secondary school in Birmingham. Her family has moved to Birmingham to be with her.

Malala had begun her campaigning for girls’ education in 2009, under a pseudonym, writing a blog for the BBC world service. Her father was a headteacher in the area and encouraged her education. According to The Guardian (28 March 2013, p.6) her real identity became known and she frequently appeared in Pakistan and international media advocating for the right of girls to go to school. In October 2011, Archbishop Desmond Tutu nominated her for the International Children’s Peace prize and in December 2011, aged 14, she was awarded Pakistan’s first National Youth Peace Prize. It was this that eventually brought her to the attention of the Taliban in the region, given their wishes to reinforce women’s subordinate role as housewives and mothers befitting their version of Islamic texts.  

Malala’s cause has been taken up by several international celebrities, for instance the film star Angelina Jolie, who has been campaigning for women’s rights and especially health questions such as breast cancer, given her own diagnosis.

Malala has also been contracted to write a book entitled I am Malala about her life. It will be published by Weidenfeld & Nicholson in the UK and Commonwealth and by Little, Brown in the rest of the world.  She argued then that ‘I hope this book will reach people around the world, so they realize how difficult it is for some children to get access to education. I want to tell my story, but it will also be the story of 61 million children who can’t get education. I want to be part of the campaign to give every boy and girl the right to go to school.’

International politicians have also jumped on the bandwagon and tried to transform this campaign into a wider political issue. For example, the incoming Secretary of State for the US, John Kerry, replacing Hillary Clinton, argued that he would continue her fight for women. In an article entitled Malala’s vital lesson for US foreign policy published in London’s Evening Standard on international women’s day (March 8, 2013, p.14) he argued that the world should tackle ‘gender-based violence. As the father of two daughters, I cannot imagine the pain suffered by the parents of the young woman known as ‘Nirbhaya’ the 23 year old medical student murdered on a New Dehli bus simply for being a woman, or the anguish felt by the parents of Malala Yousafzai, the Pakistani girl shot by extremists as she too rode on a bus, simply for wanting to go to school’. He then went on that ‘No country can ahead if it leaves half its people behind…That is why the United States believes gender equality is critical to our shared goals of prosperity, stability and peace, and why investing in women and girls worldwide is critical to advancing US foreign policy.’

Similarly, the former British prime minister and now UN education envoy, Gordon Brown, and his wife Sarah Brown have taken up her cause. They were involved with organizing Malala Day both at the UN, and through the children’s charity Plan UK, A World at School. Since Malala’s attack, the Pakistani government has passed a law making primary school education mandatory for all children. This was originally part of the UNESCO’s Millennium Development goals of 2000, to be implemented by 2010!

The goals of universal girls’ education and education for all are clearly vitally important in the world and the GEA supports both wholeheartedly. The two goals, however, confuse rather than clarify gender relations. Gender-related violence is not confined to the developing regions of the world, although it is clear that it remains a serious problem for the implementation of EFA.

A senior member of the Pakistani Taliban has written an open letter to Malala ‘expressing regret that he didn’t warn her before the attack, but claiming that she was targeted for maligning the insurgents…and ‘smearing’ them rather than for her campaign for girls’ education.’ (The Guardian, 18 July 2013, p. 3). In other words, he argued that the use of the gun was legitimate in the battle for a ‘proper’ form of Islam in the region. Thus violence, and gender-based violence in particular remain legitimate.

It is also the case that the campaigns for education ignore gender-based violence which are still rife in the UK and USA and elsewhere. We must continue to argue for a more appropriate form of education for all that tackles issues of gender, gender based sexual abuse, as part of child sexual abuse as well as including violence against women (VAW) as part of a proper education for all.

 

Miriam David,

GEA Policy Officer

July 19th 2013

 

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GEA presentations in the USA at the American Educational Research Association: an example of feminine educational ‘success’?


GEA Policy Report – June 2013 – Reporting from AERA

 

The American Educational Research Association (AERA) annual meeting held in San Francisco in late April-early May 2013 held much of interest to GEA members, targeted as it was on “Education and Poverty: Theory, Research, Policy, and Praxis,” and to other critical issues in education. Other critical issues to education, for once, included gender, as well as race, ethnicity and class. Policy and praxis were also treated as expansive concepts and not confined to governance or government only. Interestingly, too, the conference meetings were truly digitized and there was much use of social media such as Facebook and Twitter and we were invited to see conference highlights each day with a daily email reminder through our own programmes and emails etc.

 

At times, it began to feel as if paper and the presentation of papers might be from a bygone era. This did not quite happen as there were a multitude of paper sessions and presentations, mostly using power point in one form or another. Nevertheless, whilst sessions were in progress people would be tweeting and commenting into the ether, making for a much wider, richer and fuller experience (although I still have not [yet] mastered the intricacies of twitter and so do not know quite how widespread the practice has become).

 

Most importantly, however, there were several sessions by GEA members, and associates, including regional representatives from around the world. One of the co-organisers of the next interim GEA conference and co-editor of Gender and Education – Julie Mcleod – also gave presentations, making it feel as if our presence was well and truly on the map. Advance notice of our interim conference to be held in Melbourne Australia at the University of Melbourne in November-December 2014 was made, making it feel as if it was already becoming a reality and would be both a virtual and a real experience if AERA is anything to go by.

 

Feminist activism and pedagogy in diverse contexts: revisiting the paradoxes of feminine educational ‘success’ became a critically successful session, chosen as it was for special review and evaluation by the AERA team. It was organized by Jessica Ringrose (a GEA executive member) and included in the Women and Education sig (special interest group). It reprised and extended the symposium presented the previous week at the GEA biennial conference at London South Bank University. It was an altogether bigger event than in London, although the room allocated was probably much smaller it was packed full of feminists, and over 100 attended the session, despite the early (Monday) morning start of 8.15 am. It did feel a bit as if we were going back to school!

 

Jessica presented an extremely lively and spirited argument about the objectives of the session being about the politics and practice of gender equality in education in the 21st century (despite her severe illness). The papers were to, and did indeed, range across the challenges surrounding and sustaining feminist engagement in educational spaces, given ‘post-feminist’ assumptions that feminism has already achieved its aims in the ‘global north’. Together we were to and did explore diverse femininities and how different girls face different paradoxes in negotiating the reactive discourse of feminine educational ‘success’. We also all engaged with a mass of empirical data on women and girls from a range of international locations and the panel presenters included contributors from international projects. As Jessica argued collectively the papers demonstrated how feminist activism is challenging a range of raced, classed, gender and sexual inequalities and the dilemmas facing different girls and women as they struggle to achieve and succeed in the new global marketplace. The question of understanding and challenging what is meant by success is becoming increasingly problematic in a commodified and commericalised marketplace of education across the board and sexualisation.

In the US, the panel included Ileana Jimenez, a feminist high school teacher from New York who had been unable to afford to come to England, and Marnina Gornick, the Canadian feminist educator, was the discussant of all the papers (who had also not come to the UK). Neither Jane Kenway from Australia nor Debbie Epstein from the UK were well enough to come to the US (although Debbie had presented the paper in London at the GEA conference) to present on Classy girls and not so classy politics from their international (Australian-funded) ethnographic study of 9 elite independent schools with 2 girls and 1 boys, and the rest co-educational. The schools are located variously in the UK, South Africa, Australia, Argentina, Barbados, Hong Kong, India, Singapore. (I therefore presented the paper that Debbie had given in London).

 

In both the US and UK, I set the scene with my paper on my forthcoming book entitled Feminism, gender and universities: politics, passion and pedagogies. I reflect upon feminist activism in global academe over the last 50 years to consider what has been achieved by academic feminism as both a political and educational project. Has feminism transformed women’s lives in the direction of gender equality and gendered power relations? What remains to be done, given paradoxical social and political transformations in neo-liberalism, and what should be undone and refashioned towards a more feminist-friendly future?  I have developed a collective memoir and life history drawing on the stories and narratives of over 100 international feminist academics and activists from the UK, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, USA etc and drawn into social and feminist networks, including education feminism through AERA. The stories together mount a critique of what can now be seen as a misogynistic numbers game with the claim that gender equality in education has been achieved in higher education, given the majority of women undergraduate students in universities in the global north as shown by UNESCO’s Atlas of Gender Equality in Education (March 2012).

 

Ileana Jimenez followed with a most engaging presentation on her work on Teaching Feminism In High School: Moving from Theory to Action. She showed how teaching theory provides students with scholarly frameworks for understanding systematic oppression along lines of race, class, gender and sexuality and gave us numerous examples of how she succeeded with doing this in her classrooms in NYC and Washington. She also added examples of creating partnerships with local and national women’s and girls’ activist groups to allow students to apply intersectionality as a feminist theory to real-world issues, including the sexualisation of girls in the media, the commercial sexual exploitation of children, as well as street and school harassment. She argued that students not only learn to analyse these issues but also act on them by leveraging a variety of platforms, ranging from blogging to direct advocacy and activism. She also showed us how these practices impact upon student empowerment, as they find both their written and activist voices as social change agents on the ground, online, and on air.

Emma Renold (also a member of the GEA executive) presented the joint paper with Jessica Ringrose entitled ‘Disengaged’ girls doing teen feminism: mapping the contradictions in a feminist pedagogical-research assemblage (Jessica having presented it in London). They show the limitations and possibilitiers of a girl power group in a Welsh school that was organized to raise the achievement of ‘disengaged’ girls. They presented an analysis of the group activities which included girls’ teaching about domestic violence, ‘sexualisation’ and healthy sexual relationships to younger students, as well as participating in activist events and conferences. They also showed the contradictions and difficulties girls face in doing and becoming teen feminists and becoming part of a feminist pedagogical assemblage. They also illustrate the ‘schizoid’ condition of being positioned simultaneously as ‘underachievers’, ‘feminists’ and ‘teachers’ but also having to teach about healthy sexuality whilst simultaneously being embroiled in their own complex ménage of gender and sexual teen relations/hips.

 

Victoria Showunmi from IOE London gave the final presentation of the AERA session on her work entitled Using feminist critical race theory and intersectionality to explore Black girls’ narratives about the British education system. She presented another extremely lively and thought-provoking paper about how the continuous surge of focus on boys’ [under]achievement and girls’ success has erased the classed, racial and gendered complexities of educational achievement. From a research, policy and activist perspective this has left a significant gap in understandings around Black Minority Ethnic (BME) girls’ experiences in the UK education system, she argued. She therefore explored why some BME young girls appear to succeed and achieve in education, whilst others may find the pathway too stressful and ‘drop’ out. She took the opportunity to explore the issues raised to find a way of creating a voice for BME girls in UK schooling, challenging the longstanding myth that ‘all black girls’ are achieving in education.  Her paper provided some wonderful examples of these contradictions. (At GEA in London Emily Henderson also gave a spirited presentation on her thesis work on gender theory replacing Victoria who was unable to attend).

Marnina Gornick drew the threads together of the session by asking several pertinent questions about feminine educational ‘success’ in the current neo-liberal context and inviting further contributions. The session ended on an inconclusive note as we were out of time, but excited by how we were bringing together theory, and praxis around these challenging and difficult issues for the future.

Miriam E. David

June 7th 2013

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On the ascendance: education as a key to global feminism?


GEA Policy Report, March 2013

International women’s week was inaugurated in the media this year in a quiet way and yet it has spawned a tremendous amount of footage in the press and other media, culminating in the UK with a weekend festival of arts called Women of the World organized by Jude Kelly, indomitable director of the Southbank Centre in London. What is particular music to GEA is the welcome focus on Education as the main path to equality as can be seen in a myriad of articles, letters and comments and the launch of the new British Library website. Read the full story

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What does feminism mean today, given that it is fifty years since the beginnings of ‘second-wave’ feminism?


GEA Policy Report, March 2013 Read the full story

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Mary McIntosh: feminist inspiration and pioneer of radical, lesbian sociology and criminology (1936 – January 5th 2013)


Mary McIntosh was a leading feminist sociologist of her generation, namely that of what is now often referred to as ‘second-wave’ feminism, and both a pioneer and great inspiration to those of us who followed quickly in her footsteps. She started as a committed Marxist and campaigner for social justice and human rights, rapidly becoming an active member of the lesbian and gay liberation movement, and, at the same time, helping to establish an array of women’s campaigning groups. It was her activism that was an essential characteristic and was both awe-inspiring and breath-taking: she was somewhat of a reluctant writer, although her key publications were hugely influential.

Read the full story

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Inclusion and Gender Equity in Education: A Conference at the Institute for Educational Development, Aga Khan University


Dar es Salaam, 14 – 16 November 2012

GEA Policy Report Read the full story

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In Memoriam: Eva Figes


Eva Figes, the author of Patriarchal Attitudes, died aged 80 in August 2012. Her book was published to popular British acclaim alongside several other signature books of women’s liberation, including The Female Eunuch by Germaine Greer and The Dialectic of Sex by Shulamith Firestone. These publications signalled a new and critical mood amongst a growing number of women becoming involved in the international women’s liberation movement. Read the full story

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An Update: The Women’s Library


This is to report on what is happening to The Women’s Library, a resource that was set up over 75 years ago as the Fawcett Library in central London. It moved to premises in the East End of London in the 1990s, and became part of what was then the London Guildhall University. The latter then amalgamated with North London University to become London Metropolitan University. There was a contest between the London School of Economics, amongst others, and the Guildhall for housing the library as a resource for feminist historians, social scientists and arts people, back in the 1990s which Guildhall won. At the turn of the 21st century there was a bid for lottery funds to rehouse the library in a converted women’s bathhouse nearby. This bid was successful and the library was housed in an architect-designed building that opened in 2003. Read the full story

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Promoting Equality: UK Feminista


GEA Policy Report Autumn 2012

UK Feminista is a relatively new organization of ‘ordinary women and men campaigning for gender equality’. Founded just over 2 years ago, it has wide and international aims, namely a ‘vision of a world where women enjoy all the rights enshrined in CEDAW – the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women – otherwise known as the ‘women’s bill of rights’. Read the full story

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BY GOVE: BACK TO THE FUTURE: EDUCATION CIRCA 1962!


GEA Policy Officer’s Report, 2012

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Gender and Education Association

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  • Providing an influential feminist voice
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